top of page
  • martinamargaux


Updated: Feb 19


Download PDF • 244KB



“IMMATERIAL MATTER (s)” -  Unveiling the contradictions of perception through material manipulation

 "For matter to be alive, it must be contradictory at its core[...], in photography, these are light and shadow, transparency and opacity, the softness of transitions or the contrast [...]. Great photographers/artists know how to embrace these dynamic contradictions that bring their material to life."


Jean-Claude Lemagny, 1994





Human experience is based on our perception of the physical world and the innate necessity to make sense of it. But is it real only what we see, hear, smell, taste, touch? Is it true only what we think it is? And what happens if what we perceive is in contradiction with what we believe to be true?


The concept of truth is essentially a human invention, yet it has been the central topic of all philosophical investigations for millennia.

Particularly in Western culture, we tend to interpret reality through a dualistic lens,  categorising and “understanding” reality in terms of opposites: truth vs falseness, reality vs illusion, good vs evil, light vs darkness, material vs immaterial, presence vs absence, positive vs negative…


While this binary approach can offer a semblance of clarity and solace in decoding the chaos that surrounds us, other theories from various fields of study, paint a much more complex picture. Human perception is fragmented, reality is multi-layered, and they are both fundamentally inexplicable.

Some of these theories don’t discredit the importance of polarities, but they suggest that between two poles, there is a liminal, invisible space, as this as a veil, in which the opposites originate and paradoxically coexist.

In this sense, I imagine the “veil” as a sort of membrane that acts not just as a divider, but as a connective entity as well. A space of contradiction.


For philosophers like Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, drawing from Indian philosophy, it was “the veil of Maya” – representing the illusory and deceptive nature of the visible world for the first, and the tension between the two principles of artistic creation for the latter.

In Dialethism, this is the space of “true contradictions” – a concept that defies the traditional axioms of logic.

Quantum physics introduced the “multiverse” theory – suggesting that there are universes that exist in parallel at the same time and space as our own.

For Psychanalysis and Surrealism it is the realm of the unconscious – a space that contains layers of perception beneath our conscious awareness.  


Now, how does all this reflect onto matter in the work of art? Can an artwork become a portal to peek behind the veil? Can art unveil other layers of reality?


On the basis of this initial argument, I intend to face these questions and ask more, to experiment ways to capture or evoke this invisible space of perception by manipulating materials, in particular through the photographic medium.

By doing so, my practice-based research takes the form of a series of visual reflections onto the universal questions of human existence and perception, as well as a descent into my own fragmented interiority.

Through this ambitious exploration of theory, practice and materials, I aim to capture the essence of this invisible non-space, using photography not just as a tool for visual representation, but as a way to transcend the visible and touch the intangible.

If the only way to find something invisible is to get lost, I am exactly where I need to be.



AIM 1:

Develop a multifaceted understanding about the relationship between human perception and psyche (body/mind) at the edges of (what we call) reality, focusing in particular on the contradictions that arise in their interplay.


  • Objective 1: Conduct interdisciplinary research into philosophical, spiritual, scientific and psychological studies in relation to the concerns cited above.


  • Objective 2: Research and reflect on how these themes have influenced other artists and how they have been applied in art making – fields include visual arts, cinema, literature, new technologies…


  • Objective 3: Self-experimentation to expand and study my own perception. Engage in regular spiritual practices and techniques, including meditation, pranayama breathwork, yoga and performance exercises. Draw back from my theatre background (no drugs involved)


  • Objective 4: Observation and interaction. Take advantage of my nomadic lifestyle to keep refreshing my senses. How do quotidian experiences challenge the perceived contradictions between my internal and external realities? What resonates with the theme of my research? How do I visualise contradicting feelings? Take notes.


  • Objective 5: Discuss the themes with others, from common people like friends and family, to my analyst,  to experts in the field and other artists.


  • Objective 6: Document my thoughts, notes, sketches, observations and findings on the blog

AIM 2:

Master traditional and alternative techniques of the photographic medium and sublimate the contradictory nature of perception into works of art that provoke deep emotional responses.


  • Objective 1: Commit to a more regular practice. Find freedom in planning. Be flexible but constant.


  • Objective 2: Study the theory and practice of photographic printmaking. My experience as a film director gives me an advantage when it comes to shooting with a camera. I focus on practicing various printing techniques: traditional darkroom prints, camera-less techniques (photograms, watergrams, chemigrams, cyanotype, salt paper process), mixed media techniques (liquid emulsion on tri-dimensional objects, transfers and lifts, colorisation, collage), experiment with different paper and chemicals. I will start with black and white to potentially move to colour once I master the black and white technique (colour is more complex)


  • Objective 3: transform my cellar into a darkroom photo lab


  • Objective 4: Look for totally new, unexpected perspectives to portray and manipulate reality. Focus not on what I see, but how I see it. Approach the material like a living entity: how do materials react? Can I establish a dialogue with them? Explore matter as multisensorial texture: how does it look/smell/feel/sound? Use tools like lens filters and lighting (UV, Infrared), special deforming lenses (for example extreme wide angle or diopter lenses) for variations of scale, tweak the settings for unexpected results (for example shutter speed, aperture, focus blur).


  • Objective 5: Explore the contamination between analog and digital (master Adobe Photoshop, digital negative techniques, manipulation of digital printing)


  • Objective 6: Apply the use of tools and techniques to concepts like disorientation, defamiliarization, alienation, minimalism, to represent a contradictive and subconscious level of perception, hopefully creating abstract, poetic, tactile images that can be touched with the eyes.


  • Objective 7: Thoroughly record learning and experimentation on the blog


AIM 3: 

By successfully completing Aim 1 and 2, set the foundation for a successful, professional practice (Aim 3 probably exceeds the 2 year plan).


  • Objective 1: build a unique body of work, subverting the reproducibility of the photographic medium and taking it closer to the uniqueness of painting or sculpture.


  • Objective 2: Continue research based on the findings and conclusions of my initial research into contradictory perception, and deepen it into what resonates most with me.


  • Objective 3: Obtain an apprenticeship with an artist or in a photographic lab who works in the direction of my interest and themes (Carlos Barrantes, Laurent Lafolie, Guillaume Geneste, Picto Lab, Diamantino)


  • Objective 4: Extend my practice to other media, both new and familiar (video, new technologies, scenography), aiming to develop a hybrid language and develop personal style  


  • Objective 5: Design an exhibition featuring a multi-media installation that involves all the five, maybe six, senses. The theme of the exhibition will result from all the steps I will take and the outcomes I will discover in this practice-based research.


  • Objective 6: Realise my exhibition and sell my first piece.


3.     CONTEXT


History of ideas and Concepts

  • Philosophy


- Ancient Philosophy and Mysticism, which have a rich history of visual metaphors and concepts that can be suitable for visual abstraction.

For example: Plato about perception of reality, the myth of the cave and other writings.

Aristotle and the studies on logic, syllogisms, truth and reality.


- Modern and contemporary philosophy, highlighting the link between Western and Eastern thought:

- Schopenhauer – the veil of Maya and concept of reality

- Nietzsche – the birth of tragedy and beyond. The origin of artistic creation. Opposite forces of Dyonisiac and Apollineous and his view on the veil of Maya

- Relativism and the concept of truth and reality as projections of the self.

- Dialetheism and the concept of true contradictions:

Dialetheism (from Greek δι- di- 'twice' and ἀλήθεια alḗtheia 'truth'), is the view that there are statements that are both true and false. More precisely, it is the belief that there can be a true statement whose negation is also true. Such statements are called "true contradictions", dialetheia, or nondualisms.

All these philosophical movements have been influenced by Eastern philosophy traditions,  such as Veda and Buddhism.


- Deepen the research by analysing the developments of this theme in Aesthetics studies, such as the work of  W. Benjamin, and consider how these theories have been or could be applied onto practice and art making.


  • Science


- Neuroscience – studies and theories on perception within the brain.

- Psychanalysis - the unconscious/subconscious (Freud, Jung, Lacan, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy)

- Quantum physics/Mechanics - the multiverse theory.


  • Arts


- History of the media of photography and printmaking, not just to learn facts and dates, but to understand the evolution of the techniques used and the context in which they were developed.

The “history of Photography” and other writings by Jean Claude Lemagny have been particularly useful and inspiring so far.

Note how photography influenced and was influenced by art movements like Surrealism and Expressionism (Man Ray’s rayographs, Jerry Uelsmann’s unreal landscapes. Dora Maar’s collages).

Reflect on the transition to Expressionism and its focus on materials and abstraction.

I was stunned by László Moholy-Nagy’s photograms, resembling the work of Kandinsky - who talked about the use of abstraction in art as a means to express the "inner necessity" of the artist.

Study the work of Mark Rothko and his thoughts about light and colour to unlock emotions. How does that translate to photography? Could it be translated in this medium?


- Other artists I feel inspired by:

Hiroshi Sugimoto

Daido Moriyama

Mario Giacomelli

Barbara Kasten

Ann Mandelbaum

Wolfgang Tillmans

Thomas Paquet

Anish Kapoor

Marina Abramovic

Laurent Grasso

James Turrel

Lee Ufan

Hicham Berrada

Laure Prouvost


In addition, I discovered a particular interest in Science Fiction literature that I intend to deepen (particularly its philosophical aspects + graphical inspiration)



Medium and technology I use

Media-wise, I started this course coming from a very different direction than the one I am now pursuing. I see this as a challenge, as much as a small success.

Initially, my focus was on video and technological installations, but the transforming experience of this course and its encouragement to explore further, led me to re-discover and fall in love with the experimental branch of the photographic medium.


My epiphany in the darkroom was a sensation I’ve rarely, if ever, felt before. I believe it will be a major element in shaping my future path.


Working with video and digital media made me feel in control of things, somehow. I had agency and knowledge over most aspects. On the other hand, realising projects like the ones I made, and I want to make, with few resources and without a crew, has often been a significant obstacle to develop and maintain a constant practice.


Working in the darkroom to me is a solitary dance, a dialogue with light, darkness, materials and chemicals. It is a dark and safe space to which I belong, and in which I feel free and independent. The images emerge from nothingness, and I play only a part in this manifestation. This discipline requires specific knowledge and technique but also allows me to let go of control.


Time takes on a new dimension when I’m in this space. The balance between my expertise and the outcome always reveals something I didn’t plan. This element of surprise makes it the ideal medium of experimentation for me.


The choice of a medium I don’t fully master yet can be challenging, especially at the high level of a Master Course. Part of the practice involves actually learning (or re-learning) the basics.

My experience shooting with digital cameras certainly is useful, but the road is still long.  

The goal to create a complex, original, professional body of works extends the 2 year duration of the course. But I’ve never felt more close to my work than in this space, in this medium, in this moment.


I am not leaving behind the media I worked with so far - on the contrary I aim to eventually craft a personal language using various media. I strongly believe this is the right direction for me, whatever it takes.







My (tentative) approach to practice: embracing accidents. Be surprised. Unlearn to relearn.


Experimentation: Manipulate images to reveal contradictory perceptions of reality, through the use of lenses, visual effects, alternative printmaking and digital processes.


Technique: Improve and expand my practical knowledge of photographic shooting, development, post-production, printmaking.


Sensorial priority: I want to let my senses, intuition, and gut lead the practice. The mind supports, of course, the development of concepts and their application.

My focus is on mastering the techniques of darkroom and cameraless alternative processes and, potentially later on, integrate and realise video and installation projects.

The work I do in the darkroom for me embodies the act of revealing. I love the contradiction that to make an image, I rely on all my senses but sight.


Turn obstacles in opportunities: My life is in constant movement. I travel a lot, and  sometimes it’s difficult to maintain a regular and coherent practice. But this lifestyle also offers endless inspiration and fresh perspectives. I need to find creative ways to turn my irregularity into an advantage.


Personal insight: Last year I went through a very difficult period. The sudden death of a dear friend and collaborator ignited a deep crisis and made me question everything I was doing.

I realised how much my brain/thoughts was stopping my body/actions due to fear of failure, loss, judgement, senselessness. I felt I had accomplished nothing and that if I died in that moment, there would be nothing left.

I worked through the crisis with my analyst and made the decision that a big change was necessary. But how could I pull my mind out of this block? The feeling of blockage was so strong. Fear was filling up my life. I was paralysed.

I am convinced that, more often than not, somehow the body “gets it” before the mind. I started having this idea that if only I could listen to the body first, set it motion, maybe my mind would follow. But the situation was so extreme and my mind so deaf. I had to find a way to make my body very loud. I had to face my deepest fears and jump. And that’s exactly what I did.  

The day after my 35th birthday, I jumped off a plane at 13000ft of altitude. It’s relevant to mention that I suffer from vertigo.

I didn’t know if I would be able to do it, I didn’t know what to expect, I certainly didn’t know if I’d come out alive. But into that unknown, into that vulnerability, I found a force and a freedom I didn’t know I had in me. Jumping off a plane opened up a new approach to life for me (and got me to this course).


The point of this little story is that I intend to keep jumping, seeking for that suspension that is both flying and falling, where deep creativity lives. Where art is not made, but art happens.


Methods and Procedures


  • To Discover:


- Make a plan for a regular practice. In structure, find freedom. In change, find stability. In obstacles, find opportunities.  


- Learn darkroom and cameraless alternative process to create images:  traditional darkroom techiniques, photograms, watergrams, chemigrams, cyanotype, salt paper process, liquid emulsion on tri-dimensional objects, transfers and lifts, colorisation, collage. Start with black and white and move on to colour once I master the technique.

I need to practice a lot and consistently (like a musician must practice musical scales to actually find freedom in playing).

I am also currently looking for workshops and apprenticeships in my area.


- Experiment with the “traditional” techniques I learn, integrating them with other techniques from my experience, challenging materials and tools.


- Observe

o My work. Let it rest and return to it with fresh eyes. Look for my “punctum”, as Roland Barthes brilliantly defined in his book “La Chambre Claire/Camera Lucida”: “The punctum is therefore a kind of subtle off-field, as if the image projected the desire beyond what it shows: not only towards 'the rest' of a nudity, not only towards the phantom of a practice, but also towards the absolute excellence of a being, soul and body confused together.


o The work of others across various disciplines. Art, films, books, poetry, theatre, dance, music…


- Participate. attend events and actively exchange with people in relation to my research and the art world. For example: conferences, art fairs, exhibitions, Biennale, gatherings, virtual studio…


- Collaborate. despite the space of creation can be a solitary one, and solitude is essential to me, I also believe in the power of collaboration. I believe that in the contamination of ideas, disciplines and cultures we can find deeper richness, complexity and originality. I would be happy to work on a few collaborative projects.


Expand my artistic approach and practice. In my life I am involved in different activities, from personal projects to commissioned work. Try to use and observe this experiences from different angles, reflect on it, learn from it, test with it, and use these experiences in my art practice.


  • To Record:


- Document the work thoroughly through images, drawings, notes. Make sure to document all the steps of the process, not just the outcome.


- Communicate my thoughts, work, experiments, findings, inspirations through Blog posts. Post regularly or I’ll never catch up (learnt from experience).



How does theory relate to the practice

Take inspiration from concepts in my research and the works of other artists. I am aware of the vastness of my theoretical research at this stage and the risk of it being too broad and generic. The spectrum of the research will inevitably reduce and become more specific, deep and coherent. Theory emerges in practice. Everything is connected, I just have to find those links. When you find them, they kind of “light up”. The work of an artist is to unveil them and follow them.



5.     OUTCOME


The final outcome I envision now (but will probably change and evolve in paradoxical ways!) is a mixed media installation featuring a series of photographic objects or sculptures, projections, immersive sound and scents. A tri-dimensional “sensescape” that involves all five, maybe six, senses and engages viewers in contradictory ways, for example a feeling of comfort and unease, of freedom and confinement, reality and illusion.




Plan is flexible and open to change. Unforeseen opportunities, events and encounters may arise, that could impact the pan and offer valuable contributions to my growth as an artist.



Weeks 1-10 (Oct-Dec 2023):

- Course starts. Realise it’s really happening!

- Start the blog.

- Reflect on where I come from and where I want to go.

- Experiment with techniques and media outside of my comfort zone (painting, drawing, dark room <3)

- Read, observe, watch, listen, taste, smell.

- Research concepts of Reality, Manifestation, Maya.

- Attend Paris Plus by Art Basel

- Attend Paris Photo and collateral events (Approche, Paris International)

- Travel to North Africa and Middle East – experience practice away from “studio”.

- Document thoughts, work, research, experiments on the blog (at least 1/week)

Weeks 11-20 (Jan-Mar 2024):

- Plan for a more regular practice

- Continue my research and extend it to perception and photography Aesthetics.

- Experiment with the photographic medium – with and without camera.

- Go to photo lab/darkroom (at least 1/week)

- Study and practice alternative processes.

- Read, observe, watch, listen, taste, smell.

- Attend exhibitions, vernissages, and networking/gathering events.

- Select and analyse the work of artists that inspire me.

- Week 17: Assessment Unit 1

- Reflect on the work I want to bring to CSM Interim Show (What best represents where I am at now? What is practical to move from Paris? How does the work relate to the space and the theme of the exhibition?).

- Travel to London for Low Residency and Interim Show.

- Document thoughts, work, research, experiments on the blog (at least 1/week).



Weeks  21-30 (Apr-Jun 2024):


- Maintain regular practice (in “studio” and while traveling).

- Continue my research and extend it to perception and photography Aesthetics.

- Experiment with the photographic medium – with and without camera.

- Go to photo lab/darkroom (at least 1/week).

- Explore and engage with the analog photography community in my city.

- Transform my cellar into a dark room to be able to spend more time practicing, experimenting, learning, and likely making mistakes.

- Study and practice alternative processes.

- Read, observe, watch, listen, taste, smell.

- Select and analyse the work of artists that inspire me.

- Attend exhibitions, vernissages, and networking/gathering events.

- Apprenticeship/Workshop at a photographic lab (if possible – otherwise continue searching for it after the end of term)

- Attend Venice Art Biennale

- Document thoughts, work, research, experiments on the blog (at least 1/week)




Weeks 1-10 (Oct-Dec 2024):

- Maintain regular practice (in “studio” and while traveling).

- Continue my research and define a more specific area of interest.

- Experiment with the photographic medium – with and without camera - and integrate other media to my practice (video, technology…)

- Go to photo lab/darkroom (at least 1/week) and spend time in my cellar-dark room.

- Engage with and contribute to the analog photography community in my city.

- Read, observe, watch, listen, taste, smell.

- Select and analyse the work of artists that inspire me. If I get the chance, engage with the ones who are alive and available for exchange.

- Week 9: Assessment Unit 2

- Attend exhibitions, vernissages, and networking/gathering events

- Attend Paris Plus by Art Basel

- Attend Paris Photo and collateral events (Approche, Paris International)

- Start developing a professional portfolio.

- If ready, start looking for opportunities to show my work where I live/travel (collective exhibitions/artist residencies/competitions)

- Document thoughts, work, research, experiments on the blog (at least 1/week)





Weeks 11-20 (Jan-Mar 2025):

- Maintain regular practice (in “studio” and while traveling).

- Continue my research and strengthen its connection to my practice.

- Experiment with the photographic medium – with and without camera - and integrate other media to my practice (video, technology…)

- Go to photo lab/darkroom (at least 1/week) and spend time in my cellar-dark room.

- Engage with and contribute to the analog photography community in my city.

- Read, observe, watch, listen, taste, smell.

- Select and analyse the work of artists that inspire me. If I get the chance, engage with the ones who are alive and available for exchange.

- Attend exhibitions, vernissages, and networking/gathering events.

- Develop and refine professional portfolio.

- Look for opportunities to show my work where I live/travel (collective exhibitions/artist residencies/competitions)

- Document thoughts, work, research, experiments on the blog (at least 1/week)


Weeks 21-30 (Apr-Jun 2025):

- Maintain regular practice (in “studio” and while traveling)

- Continue my research and strengthen the connection to my practice

- Experiment with the photographic medium – with and without camera - and integrate other media to my practice (video, technology…)

- Go to photo lab/darkroom (at least 1/week) and spend time in my cellar-dark room.

- Engage with and contribute to the analog photography community in my city

- Read, observe, watch, listen, taste, smell.

- Select and analyse the work of artists that inspire me. If I get the chance, engage with the ones who are alive and available to exchange

- Attend exhibitions, vernissages, and networking/gathering events

- Week 27: Assessment Unit 3

- Develop and refine professional portfolio.

- Look for opportunities to show my work where I live/travel (collective exhibitions/artist residencies/competitions)

- Document thoughts, work, research, experiments on the blog (at least 1/week)


Week 31:

- Where do I go from here?

- Reflect on my experiences over the past 2 years: the people I met, the collaborations, the struggles, the successes, the work, the process…treasure all these things that will be invaluable to navigate the artwork professionally.








-       Alternative Processes Academy

-       The Darkroom Rumor

-       Macro Room Youtube Channel

-       Art Basel Youtube Channel

-       Frieze Youtube Channel

-       Paris Photo Youtube Channel

-       Palais de Tokyo Youtube Channel

-       Tate Youtube Channel

-       Moma Youtube Channel

-       Pinault Collection Channels (Bourse de Commerce, Palazzo Grassi, Punta della Dogana)

-       Fondazione Prada Youtube Channel

-       Pirelli HangarBicocca Youtube Channel

-       Biennale Channel

-       Kanopy



-       The week in Art – The Art Newspaper

-       Ça a commencé comme ça – Binge Audio

-       A Brush With…- The Art Newspaper


-       Abramovic, M. and Kaplan, J. (2016) Marina Abramovic: Walk through walls: A memoir. London: Penguin Random House.

-       Anderson, C.Z. (2019) Cyanotype: The blueprint in contemporary practice. New York, United States of America: Routledge.

-       Anderson, C.Z. (2023) The experimental darkroom: Contemporary uses of traditional Black & White Photographic Materials. New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

-       Antonini, M. (2015) Experimental photography. London, UK: Thames & Hudson.

-       Barthes, R. (1967) ‘The death of the Author’, in Aspen Magazine No. 5 +6: Fall-Winter 1967. New York, NY: Roaring Fork Press.

-       Barthes, R. (2003) La Camera Chiara: Nota Sulla fotografia. Torino: Einaudi.

-       Benjamin, W. and Duvoy, L. (2018) L’œuvre d’art à L’Époque de sa reproductibilité technique. Paris, France: Éditions Allia.

-       Berger, J. (1972) Ways of Seeing. London, UK: British Broadcasting Corporation and Penguin Books.

-       Blacklow, L. (2020) Procédés de Photographie Alternatifs: Transfert, Teinture, Virage, Gomme bichromatée, cyanotype, platinum-palladium, insolation, Papier salé et techniques numériques. Paris, France: First Editions.

-       Campbell, J. (2012) The inner reaches of outer space: Metaphor as myth and as religion. Novato, CA: New World Library.

-       Camus, A. et al. (2017) Il Mito di Sisifo. Milano: Bompiani.

-       Capra, F. (1982) The tao of physics: N exploration of the parallels between modern physics and Eastern mysticism. London: Flamingo.

-       Catani, V., Ragone, E. and Scacco, A. (1985) Il gioco dei mondi: Le idee alternative della fantascienza. Bari, Italy: Ed. Dedalo.

-       Christov-Bakargiev, C. et al. (2017) ‘The sense of color. Midway between world, body and brain’, in COLORI. Emotions of color in art. Milan, Italy: Silvana Editoriale, pp. 23–35. Available at:

-       Davy, M.M. (1975) Encyclopédie des mystiques orientales. Paris, France: R. Laffont.

-       Day, J. (2021) ‘Scents and sensibility: why smell counts in art’, Apollo, 5 June.

-       Downing, E. (1993) Artificial I’s: The self as artwork in ovid, Kierkegaard, and Thomas Mann. Tübingen, Germany: Niemeyer.

-       EGAN, F. (2008) ‘The content of color experience’, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 76(2), pp. 407–414. doi:10.1111/j.1933-1592.2007.00140.x.

-       Fabian, A.C. and Mellor, D.H. (1990) Origini. Bari, Italy: Dedalo.

-       Foucault, M. (2002) The archeology of knowledge. London, UK: Routledge.

-       Freud, S. and Musatti, C.L. (1990) Opere 1899: L’interpretazione dei sogni. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri.

-       Friedlander, J. (2013) ‘Imperfecting the illusion: Belief and the aesthetic destruction of reality’, Discourse, 35(3), p. 384. doi:10.13110/discourse.35.3.0384.

-       Galimberti, U. (2017) ‘All’inizio c’è il due ’, Psicologia Contemporanea.

-       Howard, D. (1997) ‘A Peek behind the Veil of Maya: The Historical Background of the Conception of Space as a Ground for the Individuation of Physical Systems’, Cosmos Of Science, pp. 87–150. doi:10.2307/j.ctt5vkh2v.7.

-       Jung, C.G., Jung, C.G. and Franz, M.-L. von (1968) Man and his symbols: Illustrated. New York: Dell.

-       Kandinskij, V.V. and Pontiggia, E. (1989) Lo spirituale nell’arte. Milano: SE.

-       Kapoor, A. and Leydier, R. (2011) I have nothing to say: Interviews with Anish Kapoor ; Paris: RMN Grandpalais.

-       Kimmel, L. (no date) ‘Reality and illusion in the work of art’, Human Creation between Reality and Illusion, pp. xi–xxv. doi:10.1007/1-4020-3578-0_1.

-       Lemagny (2013) Silence de la photographie. Paris, France: L’Harmattan Editions Distribution.

-       Lemagny, J.-C. (2005) L’ombre et le temps: Essais sur la photographie comme art. Paris, France: A. Colin.

-       Lemagny, J.-C. and Rouillé, A. (1998) Histoire de la Photographie. Paris, France: Larousse.

-       Levinson, J. (2006) Contemplating art. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

-       Merleau-Ponty, M. (2014) Phenomenology of perception. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

-       Mulder, A. (2011) From image to interaction: Meaning and agency in the Arts, Rotterdam, Netherland: V2_Publishing. Available at:

-       Nietzsche, F., Colli, G. and Giametta, S. (2005) La Nascita della tragedia. Milano: Adelphi.

-       Pla-Vivas, V. (2021) ‘Operating in alternative photography: Agency through prolonged photographic acts’, Journal of Visual Art Practice, 20(1–2), pp. 64–80. doi:10.1080/14702029.2021.1917908.

-       PLATONE (2013) Tutte le opere. Rome, Italy: NEWTON COMPTON EDITORI.

-       Priest, G. (1979) ‘The logic of paradox’, Journal of Philosophical Logic, 8(1). doi:10.1007/bf00258428.

-       Priest, G. (2006) In contradiction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

-       Priest, G. (2022) ‘On transcending the limits of language’, Limits of Intelligibility, pp. 219–237. doi:10.4324/9781003142133-14.

-       Priest, G. (2023) ‘The Logical Structure of dialectic’, History and Philosophy of Logic, 44(2), pp. 200–208. doi:10.1080/01445340.2023.2182584.

-       Recalcati, M. (2012) Jacques Lacan. Milano, Italy: Cortina.

-       Sena, M. (1994) ‘Dionysos as antidote: The veils of maya’, Research in Phenomenology, 24(1), pp. 189–205. doi:10.1163/156916494x00113.

-       Shiner, L. (2020) Art scents: Exploring the aesthetics of smell and the olfactory arts. New York, NY,  United States of America: Oxford University Press.

-       Skov, M. and Nadal, M. (2022) The Routledge International Handbook of Neuroaesthetics. London: Routledge.

-       Sontag, S. (1967) ‘The Aesthetics of Silence’, in Aspen Magazine No. 5 +6: Fall-Winter 1967. New York, NY: Roaring Fork Press.

-       Talbot, M. (1996) The holographic universe. London: Harper Collins Publishers.

-       Vivekananda (2001) The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama.

-       Watzlawick, P. and Breuer, R. (1994) La Realtà inventata. Milano: Feltrinelli.

-       Yacobi, B.G. (2013) ‘The Human Dilemma Life: Between Illusion and Reality’, Journal of Philosophy of Life, Vol. 3.

Youngblood, G. (2020) Expanded cinema: Fiftieth Anniversary Edition. Fordham University Press


Recent Posts

See All

Assessment UNIT 1

LO1. Formulate, describe and implement a challenging and self-directed programme of study, relating to your Study Statement. (AC Enquiry) A detailed response to this Learning Outcome is available in m


bottom of page